a_liep.wp1 1/5/06 

Hyperlink to:
        Association of Research Libraries (ARL) "LibQUAL+TM" Page

        "LibQUAL+TM" Study Bibliography

        Bruce Thompson's Home Page


Jump to:
        Selected 2005 Norms for Session #1

        "LibQUAL+TM" 2001 Score Norms for Individuals

        "LibQUAL+TM" 2002 Score Norms

        "LibQUAL+TM" 2003 Score Norms for the 3 new Subscales

        portal article on using Score Norms

        Bruce Thompson's Home Page




STABILITY OF LIBRARY SERVICE QUALITY
BENCHMARKING NORMS ACROSS TIME AND COHORTS:
A LibQUAL+TM STUDY





BRUCE THOMPSON
Department of Educational Psychology,
Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX, 77843-4225, USA
bruce-thompson@tamu.edu

COLLEEN COOK
TAMU Libraries,
Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX, 77843-5000, USA
ccook@tamu.edu

MARTHA KYRILLIDOU
Association of Research Libraries,
21 Dupont Circle
Washington, DC, 20036, USA
martha@arl.org









_____________

          Paper presented at the Asia-Pacific Conference of Library and Information Education and Practice (A-LIEP), Singapore, April 4-7, 2006.


Abstract
LibQUAL+TM is a web-administered library service quality assessment protocol that has been used around the world at hundreds of libraries of diverse types. Data have been collected from almost 500,000 library users. The protocol has been used in several language variations. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the stability of LibQUAL+TM score norms across both time and various user cohorts. Library staff may place more confidence in benchmarking conclusions if the stability of the score norms can be demonstrated.



          LibQUAL+TM is a web-administered library service quality assessment protocol (Cook, Heath, Kyrillidou & Webster, 2002; Cook, Heath, B. Thompson & R.L. Thompson, 2001a, 2001b; Cook, Heath, Thompson & Webster, 2003; Snyder, 2002) that has been used at hundreds of libraries of diverse types, including, but not limited to, public libraries, community college libraries, law libraries, health science libraries, and university research libraries. Data have been collected from almost 500,000 library users. The protocol has been used in several language variations (Kyrillidou, Cook & Thompson, 2005) in the United States, Canada, Australia, Egypt, England, France, Ireland, Scotland, Sweden, the Netherlands, South Africa, and the United Arab Emirates.
Three Primary Components
          LibQUAL+TM consists of three primary components. First, the current protocol consists of 22 core survey items yielding scores on each item, scores on each of three scales (i.e., Service Affect, Information Control, and Library as Place), and a total score. All of these scores (i.e., item, scale, and total) are scaled in the same metric, 1 to 9, with 9 being the highest rating, so that scores can be compared (e.g., item with item, item with scale, scale with total) apples-to-apples.
          Second, LibQUAL+TM also consists of a box in which survey participants provide open-ended comments. These comments are a critical component of LibQUAL+TM, because ~40% of all survey participants use the box to flesh out their concerns as library users, and to provide constructive and specific suggestions for library improvement.
          Third, LibQUAL+TM consists of a set of more than 100 ancillary items (Thompson, Cook & Kyrillidou, in press) from which libraries may select 5 additional items. This option allows library decision-makers to collect quantitative data focusing more on local concerns, in addition to benchmarking using the 22 core items completed by all survey participants.
LibQUAL+TM Literatures
          LibQUAL+TM is based on many of the same precepts as the SERVQUAL protocol (Parasuraman, Zeithaml & Berry, 1985, 1994), which was developed for use in evaluating perceived service quality in the for-profit business sector (Cook & Thompson, 2000a, 2000b). SERVQUAL has been the basis of more than 100 dissertations and 1,000 journal articles. Thus, LibQUAL+TM in very real sense developmentally "stands on the shoulders of giants." Like SERVQUAL, LibQUAL+TM is a "total market survey," which is one of the 11 ways of listening to users elaborated by Len Berry (1995).
          However, LibQUAL+TM items and scaling were carefully regrounded for use in library settings in a series of qualitative studies of library users' needs and perceptions (Cook & Heath, 2001), documented in detail by Cook (2002b). Thus, LibQUAL+TM measures library service quality perceptions from within the users' perspectives.
          Although SERVQUAL has been both widely used and hugely influential, recent GOOGLE searches have yielded even more hits for LibQUAL+TM than for SERVQUAL, perhaps reflecting LibQUAL+TM's widespread use at so many libraries around the world. And roughly 50 refereed journal articles have been published on LibQUAL+TM.
          The LibQUAL+TM articles can be disaggregated into roughly two equal-sized literatures. These articles have been published in virtually all the library science journals, including College and Research Libraries (Cook, Heath & Thompson, 2001), IFLA Journal (Cook, Heath, B. Thompson & R.L. Thompson, 2001a), Journal of Academic Librarianship (Thompson, Cook & Kyrillidou, 2005), Journal of Library Administration (Heath, Kyrillidou & Askew, 2004), Library Administration & Management (Snyder, 2002), Library Quarterly (Thompson, Cook & Heath, 2003b), Library Trends (Cook & Thompson, 2001), Performance Measurement and Metrics (Thompson, Cook & Heath, 2000), and portal (Cook, Heath & Thompson, 2003).
          The first LibQUAL+TM journal article literature involves reports by librarians about how they have used the protocol to improve service quality within their libraries. One set of articles was edited by Cook (2002a), and a second set of these articles were presented by Heath, Kyrillidou and Askew (2004).
          The second LibQUAL+TM literature involves studies investigating the integrity and meaning of LibQUAL+TM scores, including studies of score reliability (Cook, Heath, R.L. Thompson & B. Thompson, 2001; B. Thompson, Cook & R.L. Thompson, 2002) and score validity (Heath, Cook, Kyrillidou & Thompson, 2002; Thompson, Cook & Heath, 2001). Several studies in this literature have involved sophisticated statistical methods, including structural equation modeling (Thompson, Cook & Heath, 2003a), reliability generalization (Thompson & Cook, 2002), taxonometric analysis (Arnau, Thompson & Cook, 2001), and latent trait item response theory analysis (Wei, Thompson & Cook, 2005).
LibQUAL+TM Norms
          One important feature of LibQUAL+TM is the capacity to use LibQUAL+TM scores for institutional benchmarking. Libraries may select peer institutions from among other protocol participants, compare scores across institutions, identify peer institutions with superior performance, and then identify and emulate the practices at the peer institutions.
          Score norms are one vehicle for such benchmarking. The use of LibQUAL+TM norms has been explained in Cook, Heath and Thompson (2002). Score norms allow the conversion of a library's mean (i.e., average) scores into percentile ranks (see Thompson, 1993), which indicate what percentage of either (a) individual protocol respondents, or (b) institutions, generated lower LibQUAL+TM scores.
          Norms and Benchmarking. Norms tell us how scores "stack up" within a particular user group. For example, on the 1-to-9 ("9" is highest) scale, users might provide a mean "perceived" rating of 6.5 on an item, "complete run of journal titles."
          A total market survey administered to hundreds of thousands of users, as is LibQUAL+TM, affords the unique opportunity to ask normative questions such as, "How does a mean 'perceived' score of 6.5 stack up among all individual users who completed the survey?", or "How does a mean 'perceived' score of 6.5 stack up among all institutions at which users completed the survey?" For example, if 70% of 100,000 individual users generated "perceived" ratings lower than 6.5, 6.5 might not be so bad.
          Only norms give us insight into this comparative, benchmarking perspective. And a local user-satisfaction survey (as against a total market survey) can never give us this insight!
          Common Misconception Regarding Norms. An unfortunate and incorrect misconception is that norms make value statements. Norms do not make value statements! Norms make fact statements. If you are a forest ranger, and you earn $25,000 a year, a norms table might inform you of the fact statement that you make less money than 85% of the adults in the United States.
          But if you love the outdoors, you do not care very much about money, and you are very service-oriented, this fact statement might not be relevant to you. Or, in the context of your values, you might interpret this fact as being quite satisfactory.
Purpose of the Present Study
          For several years, both (a) individual and (b) institutional score norms have been published for certain types of users (e.g., undergraduate students, postgraduate students, faculty) and certain types of libraries (e.g., major research libraries, medical school libraries). These norms conversion tables are reported at:
http://people.cehd.tamu.edu/~bthompson/libq2005.htm
http://people.cehd.tamu.edu/~bthompson/libq2004.htm
http://people.cehd.tamu.edu/~bthompson/libq03b.htm
http://people.cehd.tamu.edu/~bthompson/libq2003.htm
http://people.cehd.tamu.edu/~bthompson/libq2002.htm
http://peoapl.cehd.tamu.edu/~bthompson/servnorm.htm

The several hundred thousand LibQUAL+TM user surveys collected during the last five years provide an ample basis for intriguing comparisons of the norms tables across years, language versions, and user groups.
          The purpose of the present study was to characterize the stability of LibQUAL+TM score norms across both time and various user cohorts. Library staff may place more confidence in benchmarking conclusions if the stability of the score norms can be demonstrated. Specifically, we conducted the study to address the following research questions:

1. How stable are LibQUAL+TM total and scale (i.e., Service Affect, Information Control, and Library as Place) score norms across selected years, and selected language versions (i.e., American English, British English)?
2. How stable are LibQUAL+TM total score norms across selected years and selected language versions (i.e., American English, British English) for undergraduate students versus faculty?

Results
          The various LibQUAL+TM norms conversions tables provide the capacity to convert an institution's score means into percentile ranks ranging from the 1st percentile to the 99th percentile. Here we computed Pearson product-moment correlations of the percentile scores for each of the 99 percentile ranks for various pairs of percentile scores (e.g., American English 2001 total scores correlated with American English 2003 total scores). As Thompson (2006) explained, the Pearson r addresses two questions:

1. To what degree do the two variables order the rows of data in the same order?, and
2. To what degree do the two variables have the same shape (i.e., skewness and kurtosis)?

The Pearson r has a maximum value of +1, and reaches that limit, only when the two variables order the data in exactly the same rank order, and also have identical distribution shapes.
          To address the study's first research question, Table 1 presents the Pearson r values for LibQUAL+TM total scores across selected years and two of the language versions. Tables 2 through 4 present related results for each of the three LibQUAL+TM scale scores (i.e., Service Affect, Information Control, and Library as Place).
          To address the study's second research question, Pearson r values were computed for LibQUAL+TM total scores across selected years and two of the language versions for different role groups. These results are presented for undergraduate students and faculty, respectively, in Tables 5 and 6.

Discussion
          The purpose of the present study was to explore the stability of LibQUAL+TM norms across both selected years and user groups. We could have made additional comparisons, using even more years, or more user groups (e.g., postgraduate students). However, as reflected in the results reported in Tables 1 through 6, given norms (e.g., total score norms, scale score norms, undergraduate student norms) are incredibly stable. Thus, additional comparisons seem unnecessary.
          The norms tables were stable, even though we dropped three items from the protocol, and changed scales, in 2003! And the norms were stable even across language variations in item wording.
          Of course, the present results should not be read as implying that scores for individual libraries are necessarily stable from year to year. The stability of norms tables and of institutional LibQUAL+TM scores are completely unrelated issues.
Implications
          The present results suggest that renorming the scores, by creating year-specific norms conversions tables, is unnecessary. Indeed, the use of any of the norms tables, from any of the years, appears reasonable.
          Of course, expensive standardized tests are only normed roughly every 10 years. We have always recognized that norming on a more frequent, annual basis, as we have done to date, may be overkill.
Creating Norms Dynamically
          Furthermore, the ultimate norms tables would be norms created uniquely, by given libraries, by selecting their own peer institutions, and only these, to create personalized norms tables. Such personalized norms tables allow benchmarking only within the library community of most interest at a given library. The capacity to create exactly these individualized norms, dynamically "on the fly," is a feature recently added to the LibQUAL+TM software webpages.
          LibQUAL+TM has brought together hundreds of libraries from all over the world in a community dedicated to improving library service quality. One benefit of the community's large size is that this not-for- profit operation housed within the Association for Research Libraries can be self-sustaining at only modest cost to individual participating libraries, given the efficiencies and cost benefits of economies of large scale.
          In psychology, Jourard (1971) suggested that we only come to know ourselves through the vehicle of knowing others. In libraries, also, the more we know others, the more we come to know about ourselves. The breadth of the LibQUAL+TM community not only makes the protocol affordable, but also creates the unique opportunity to know ourselves better through the vehicle of normative benchmarking with peer institutions.


References
          Arnau, R.C., Thompson, R.L., & Cook, C. (2001). Do different response formats change the latent structure of responses?: An empirical investigation using taxonometric analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 61, 23-44.
          Berry, L. (1995). On great service: A framework for action. New York: The Free Press.
          Cook, C. (Guest Ed.). (2002a). Library decision-makers speak to their uses of their LibQUAL+TM data: Some LibQUAL+TM case studies. Performance Measurement and Metrics, 3.
          Cook, C. C. (2002b). A mixed-methods approach to the identification and measurement of academic library service quality constructs: LibQUAL+TM. (Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University, 2001). Dissertation Abstracts International, 62, 2295A. (University Microfilms No. AAT3020024)
          Cook, C., & Heath, F. (2001). Users' perceptions of library service quality: A "LibQUAL+TM" qualitative study. Library Trends, 49, 548-584.
          Cook, C., Heath, F., Kyrillidou, M., & Webster, D. (2002). The forging of consensus: A methodological approach to service quality assessment in research libraries--the LibQUAL+TM experience. In J. Stein, M. Kyrillidou & D. Davis (Eds), Proceedings of the 4th Northumbria International Conference on Performance Measurement in Libraries and Information Services (pp. 93-104). Washington, DC: Association of Research Libraries.
          Cook, C., Heath, F., & Thompson, B. (2001). Users' hierarchical perspectives on library service quality: A "LibQUAL+TM" study. College and Research Libraries, 62, 147-153.
          Cook, C., Heath, F. & Thompson, B. (2002). Score norms for improving library service quality: A LibQUAL+TM study. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 2, 13-26.
          Cook, C., Heath, F., & Thompson, B. (2003). "Zones of tolerance" in perceptions of library service quality: A LibQUAL+TM study. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 3, 113-123.
          Cook, C., Heath, F., Thompson, B., & Thompson, R.L. (2001a). LibQUAL+TM: Service quality assessment in research libraries. IFLA Journal, 4, 264-268.
          Cook, C., Heath, F., Thompson, B., & Thompson, R.L. (2001b). The search for new measures: The ARL "LibQUAL+TM" study--a preliminary report. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 1, 103-112.
          Cook, C., Heath, F., Thompson, B., & Webster, D. (2003). LibQUAL+TM: Preliminary results from 2002. Performance Measurement and Metrics, 4, 38-47.
          Cook, C., Heath, F., Thompson, R.L. & Thompson, B. (2001). Score reliability in Web- or Internet-based surveys: Unnumbered graphic rating scales versus Likert-type scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 61, 697- 706.
          Cook, C., & Thompson, B. (2000a). Higher-order factor analytic perspectives on users' perceptions of library service quality. Library Information Science Research, 22, 393-404.
          Cook, C., & Thompson, B. (2000b). Reliability and validity of SERVQUAL scores used to evaluate perceptions of library service quality. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 26, 248-258.
          Cook, C., & Thompson, B. (2001). Psychometric properties of scores from the Web-based LibQUAL+TM study of perceptions of library service quality. Library Trends, 49, 585-604.
          Heath, F., Cook, C., Kyrillidou, M., & Thompson, B. (2002). ARL Index and other validity correlates of LibQUAL+TM scores. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 2, 27-42.
          Heath, F., Kyrillidou, M., & Askew, A. (Eds.). (2004). Libraries act on their LibQUAL+TM findings: From data to action. Journal of Library Administration, 40, 1-239.
          Jourard, S.M. (1971). The transparent self. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
          Kyrillidou, M., Cook, C., & Thompson, B. (2005, June). Reliability and validity of 2004 LibQUAL+TM scores for different language translations. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Library Association (ALA), Chicago. [Winner of the 2005 ALA Library Research Roundtable (LRRT) Four Star Research Award.]
          Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A., & Berry, L.L. (1985). A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research. Journal of Marketing, 70, 41-50.
          Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A., & Berry, L.L. (1994). Alternative scales for measuring service quality: A comparative assessment based on psychometric and diagnostic criteria. Journal of Retailing, 49, 201-230.
          Snyder, C. A. (2002). Measuring library service quality with a focus on the LibQUAL+TM project: An interview with Fred Heath. Library Administration & Management, 16, 4-7.
          Thompson, B. (1993, November). GRE percentile ranks cannot be added or averaged: A position paper exploring the scaling characteristics of percentile ranks, and the ethical and legal culpabilities created by adding percentile ranks in making "high-stakes" testing decisions. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Mid- South Educational Research Association, New Orleans. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 363 637)
          Thompson, B. (2006). Foundations of behavioral statistics: An insight-based approach. New York: Guilford.
          Thompson, B., & Cook, C. (2002). Stability of the reliability of LibQUAL+TM scores: A "Reliability Generalization" meta-analysis study. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 62, 735-743.
          Thompson, B., Cook, C., & Heath, F. (2000). The LibQUAL+TM gap measurement model: The bad, the ugly, and the good of gap measurement. Performance Measurement and Metrics, 1, 165-178.
          Thompson, B., Cook, C., & Heath, F. (2001). How many dimensions does it take to measure users' perceptions of libraries?: A "LibQUAL+TM" study. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 1, 129-138.
          Thompson, B., Cook, C., & Heath, F. (2003a). Structure of perceptions of service quality in libraries: A LibQUAL+TM study. Structural Equation Modeling, 10, 456-464.
          Thompson, B., Cook, C., & Heath, F. (2003b). Two short forms of the LibQUAL+TM survey assessing users' perceptions of library service quality. Library Quarterly, 73, 453-465.
          Thompson, B., Cook, C., & Kyrillidou, M. (2005). Concurrent validity of LibQUAL+TM scores: What do LibQUAL+TM scores measure? Journal of Academic Librarianship, 31, 517-522.
          Thompson, B., Cook, C., & Kyrillidou, M. (in press). Using localized survey items to augment standardized benchmarking measures: A LibQUAL+TM study. portal: Libraries and the Academy.
          Thompson, B., Cook, C., & Thompson, R.L. (2002). Reliability and structure of LibQUAL+TM scores: Measuring perceived library service quality. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 2, 3-12.
          Wei, Y., Thompson, B., & Cook, C. (2005). Scaling users' perceptions of library service quality using Item Response Theory: A LibQUAL+TM study. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 5, 93-104.

Table 1 Pearson Correlation Coefficients for LibQUAL+TM Total Percentile Scores Across Two Language Versions and Five Years ('01 to '05)

                                                                                         
Sample/                                     Variable                                     
Variable AmEng_01 AmEng_02 AmEng03a BrEng_03 AmEng03b AmEng_04 BrEng_04 AmEng_05 BrEng_05
                                                                                         
n         16,918   63,285   93,550   6,853    93,550   24,980   15,860   61,991   12,503
v         25       25       25       25       22       22       22       22       22
AmEng_01  1.0000
AmEng_02   .9823   1.0000
AmEng03a   .9996    .9819   1.0000
BrEng_03   .9998    .9827    .9994   1.0000
AmEng03b   .9995    .9818   1.0000    .9993   1.0000
AmEng_04   .9998    .9825    .9996    .9998    .9995   1.0000
BrEng_04   .9993    .9822    .9983    .9995    .9982    .9994   1.0000
AmEng_05   .9996    .9819    .9999    .9994    .9998    .9997    .9986   1.0000
BrEng_05   .9989    .9825    .9980    .9994    .9978    .9992    .9998    .9982   1.0000
                                                                                         


Note. "AmEng" = American English; "BrEng" = British English. The 2003 year marked a transition from a 25-item to a 22-item version of LibQUAL+TM, and that year norms were reported for both the longer and the new, shorter version of the protocol. Years are indicated as the last two digits of the variable names.
          In 2005, for the first time, given substantial antipodal participation by libraries in the southern hemisphere (e.g., South Africa, Australia), LibQUAL+TM began to implemented each year in two sessions. Here, for 2005, only the first session data were available at writing.

Table 2
Pearson Correlation Coefficients for LibQUAL+TM
Service Affect Percentile Scores Across Years for American English


                                            
Sample/                  Year               
Variable   2001     2003     2004     2005
                                            
n          16,918   93,413   24,980   61,991
v          9        9        9        9
2001       1.0000
2003        .9988   1.0000
2004        .9989    .9991   1.0000
2005        .9989    .9994    .9993   1.0000
                                            


Note. In 2005, for the first time, given substantial antipodal
participation by libraries in the southern hemisphere (e.g., South
Africa, Australia), LibQUAL+TM began to implemented each
year in two sessions. Here, for 2005, only the first session data
were available at writing.


Table 3
Pearson Correlation Coefficients for LibQUAL+TM
Personal Control ('01, '03), Information Access ('01, '03), and
Information Control ('03 to '05) Percentile Scores Across Years
for American English


                                                                       
Sample/                             Variable                           
Variable PersCo01 PersCo03 InfoAc01 InfoAc03 InfoCo03 InfoCo04 InfoCo05
                                                                       
n          16,918   93,548   16,918   93,530   93,267   24,980   61,991
v          6        6        5        5        8        8        8
PersCo01   1.0000
PersCo03    .9982   1.0000
InfoAc01    .9977    .9978   1.0000
InfoAc03    .9985    .9985    .9981   1.0000
InfoCo03    .9987    .9989    .9986    .9990   1.0000
InfoCo04    .9986    .9986    .9988    .9989    .9994   1.0000
InfoCo05    .9987    .9991    .9985    .9991    .9996    .9992   1.0000
                                                                       


Note. "PersCo" = Personal Control; "InfoAc" = Information Access;
"InfoCo" = Information Control. In 2003, the 6 items on the
Personal Control scale and the 5 items on the Information Access
scale merged to form the new, 8-item Information Control scale, and
that transitional year norms were reported for all three scales.

          In 2005, for the first time, given substantial antipodal participation by libraries in the southern hemisphere (e.g., South Africa, Australia), LibQUAL+TM began to implemented each year in two sessions. Here, for 2005, only the first session data were available at writing. Table 4 Pearson Correlation Coefficients for LibQUAL+TM Library as Place Percentile Scores Across Years for American English Sample/ Year Variable 2001 2003 2004 2005 n 16,918 92,850 24,980 61,991 v 5 5 5 5 2001 1.0000 2003 .9967 1.0000 2004 .9969 .9977 1.0000 2005 .9934 .9977 .9962 1.0000 Note. In 2005, for the first time, given substantial antipodal participation by libraries in the southern hemisphere (e.g., South Africa, Australia), LibQUAL+TM began to implemented each year in two sessions. Here, for 2005, only the first session data were available at writing. Table 5 Pearson Correlation Coefficients for LibQUAL+TM Total Percentile Scores for Undergraduate Students Across Two Language Versions and Five Years ('01 to '05) Sample/ Variable Variable AmEng_01 AmEng_02 AmEng_03 AmEng_04 BrEng_04 AmEng_05 n 5,154 26,483 49,262 10,342 10,702 38,952 v 25 25 25 22 22 22 AmEng_01 1.0000 AmEng_02 .9993 1.0000 AmEng_03 .9951 .9952 1.0000 AmEng_04 .9987 .9989 .9950 1.0000 BrEng_04 .9985 .9987 .9942 .9978 1.0000 AmEng_05 .9992 .9993 .9957 .9989 .9978 1.0000 Note. "AmEng" = American English; "BrEng" = British English. The 2003 year marked a transition from the 25-item to a 22-item version of LibQUAL+TM, and that year norms were reported for both the longer and the new, shorter version of the protocol.
          In 2005, for the first time, given substantial antipodal participation by libraries in the southern hemisphere (e.g., South Africa, Australia), LibQUAL+TM began to implemented each year in two sessions. Here, for 2005, only the first session data were available at writing. Table 6 Pearson Correlation Coefficients for LibQUAL+TM Total Percentile Scores for Faculty Across Two Language Versions and Five Years ('01 to '05) Sample/ Variable Variable AmEng_01 AmEng_02 AmEng_03 AmEng_04 BrEng_04 AmEng_05 n 4,420 19,067 22,360 5,410 1,783 8,903 v 25 25 25 22 22 22 AmEng_01 1.0000 AmEng_02 .9996 1.0000 AmEng_03 .9986 .9992 1.0000 AmEng_04 .9990 .9997 .9995 1.0000 BrEng_04 .9983 .9994 .9986 .9995 1.0000 AmEng_05 .9979 .9987 .9998 .9993 .9983 1.0000 Note. "AmEng" = American English; "BrEng" = British English. The 2003 year marked a transition from the 25-item to a 22-item version of LibQUAL+TM, and that year norms were reported for both the longer and the new, shorter version of the protocol.
          In 2005, for the first time, given substantial antipodal participation by libraries in the southern hemisphere (e.g., South Africa, Australia), LibQUAL+TM began to implemented each year in two sessions. Here, for 2005, only the first session data were available at writing.




APPENDIX
Percentile Scores for Percentile Ranks 1 Through 99


Table A.1
LibQUAL+TM Total Scores for Percentile Ranks 1 to 99
Across Two Language Versions and Five Years ('01 to '05)


                                                                                       
       AmEng_01 AmEng_02 AmEng_03 BrEng_03 BrEng03b AmEng_04 BrEng_04 AmEng_05 BrEng_05
%tile  (v = 25) (v = 25) (v = 25) (v = 25) (v = 22) (v = 22) (v = 22) (v = 22) (v = 22)
                                                                                       
    1   3.302    3.680    3.560    3.396    3.500    3.500    3.136    3.227    3.389
    2   3.880    4.190    4.182    3.955    4.111    4.091    3.636    3.950    3.909
    3   4.200    4.500    4.520    4.208    4.476    4.409    3.955    4.318    4.227
    4   4.404    4.720    4.783    4.417    4.727    4.636    4.167    4.571    4.451
    5   4.600    4.900    4.958    4.600    4.909    4.833    4.318    4.773    4.619
    6   4.738    5.000    5.080    4.750    5.045    5.000    4.455    4.909    4.753
    7   4.880    5.136    5.200    4.880    5.167    5.091    4.591    5.000    4.864
    8   4.992    5.240    5.320    5.000    5.286    5.188    4.682    5.136    4.955
    9   5.051    5.350    5.440    5.042    5.409    5.318    4.773    5.227    5.045
   10   5.140    5.435    5.524    5.127    5.500    5.409    4.864    5.318    5.118
   11   5.229    5.520    5.625    5.217    5.591    5.498    4.955    5.421    5.182
   12   5.287    5.600    5.720    5.292    5.682    5.563    5.000    5.500    5.273
   13   5.366    5.667    5.792    5.360    5.773    5.636    5.091    5.591    5.350
   14   5.440    5.727    5.864    5.440    5.818    5.714    5.143    5.667    5.409
   15   5.516    5.800    5.920    5.480    5.909    5.773    5.200    5.727    5.455
   16   5.560    5.864    6.000    5.528    5.955    5.833    5.273    5.810    5.500
   17   5.633    5.920    6.040    5.583    6.000    5.905    5.318    5.864    5.571
   18   5.680    5.960    6.095    5.640    6.091    5.952    5.364    5.909    5.632
   19   5.753    6.000    6.160    5.680    6.136    6.000    5.409    6.000    5.667
   20   5.800    6.067    6.200    5.750    6.182    6.046    5.476    6.045    5.714
   21   5.840    6.120    6.250    5.800    6.227    6.095    5.524    6.091    5.762
   22   5.887    6.160    6.292    5.840    6.273    6.136    5.571    6.136    5.810
   23   5.925    6.200    6.348    5.880    6.318    6.182    5.591    6.182    5.850
   24   5.970    6.240    6.391    5.920    6.364    6.227    5.636    6.227    5.905
   25   6.006    6.280    6.435    5.960    6.409    6.273    5.682    6.273    5.909
   26   6.058    6.320    6.478    6.000    6.455    6.316    5.727    6.318    5.955
   27   6.098    6.360    6.520    6.040    6.500    6.350    5.773    6.364    6.000
   28   6.137    6.400    6.556    6.053    6.545    6.381    5.810    6.409    6.045
   29   6.160    6.437    6.583    6.086    6.571    6.409    5.850    6.455    6.053
   30   6.200    6.474    6.625    6.120    6.591    6.455    5.869    6.500    6.091
   31   6.240    6.500    6.650    6.160    6.636    6.500    5.909    6.526    6.136
   32   6.280    6.533    6.680    6.200    6.682    6.500    5.955    6.550    6.158
   33   6.313    6.565    6.720    6.208    6.714    6.545    6.000    6.591    6.184
   34   6.342    6.600    6.760    6.240    6.737    6.591    6.045    6.636    6.227
   35   6.374    6.640    6.792    6.280    6.773    6.619    6.068    6.682    6.269
   36   6.403    6.667    6.826    6.304    6.818    6.636    6.095    6.700    6.273
   37   6.440    6.696    6.840    6.333    6.850    6.682    6.136    6.727    6.318
   38   6.480    6.720    6.880    6.360    6.864    6.714    6.155    6.773    6.350
   39   6.513    6.760    6.917    6.400    6.909    6.727    6.182    6.810    6.366
   40   6.550    6.789    6.952    6.417    6.942    6.773    6.227    6.818    6.409
   41   6.562    6.810    6.960    6.440    6.955    6.810    6.250    6.864    6.429
   42   6.600    6.840    7.000    6.478    7.000    6.818    6.273    6.900    6.455
   43   6.633    6.875    7.000    6.500    7.000    6.864    6.318    6.909    6.500
   44   6.655    6.900    7.042    6.521    7.045    6.895    6.333    6.955    6.500
   45   6.680    6.920    7.080    6.560    7.071    6.909    6.364    7.000    6.545
   46   6.720    6.955    7.100    6.571    7.091    6.950    6.381    7.000    6.571
   47   6.750    6.960    7.125    6.600    7.136    6.955    6.409    7.045    6.591
   48   6.760    7.000    7.160    6.640    7.143    7.000    6.455    7.048    6.632
   49   6.800    7.040    7.188    6.652    7.182    7.000    6.474    7.091    6.636
   50   6.822    7.045    7.208    6.680    7.200    7.045    6.500    7.118    6.682
   51   6.840    7.080    7.240    6.720    7.227    7.077    6.545    7.136    6.682
   52   6.874    7.100    7.261    6.737    7.273    7.095    6.545    7.182    6.727
   53   6.888    7.125    7.280    6.760    7.278    7.136    6.591    7.190    6.727
   54   6.920    7.160    7.320    6.792    7.318    7.143    6.600    7.227    6.773
   55   6.953    7.174    7.333    6.816    7.333    7.182    6.636    7.250    6.800
   56   6.963    7.200    7.360    6.840    7.364    7.200    6.667    7.273    6.818
   57   7.000    7.240    7.400    6.864    7.400    7.227    6.682    7.318    6.864
   58   7.024    7.261    7.417    6.880    7.409    7.263    6.714    7.333    6.864
   59   7.040    7.280    7.440    6.909    7.455    7.273    6.727    7.364    6.909
   60   7.077    7.318    7.478    6.920    7.455    7.318    6.765    7.389    6.941
   61   7.090    7.333    7.500    6.957    7.500    7.333    6.773    7.409    6.955
   62   7.120    7.360    7.520    6.960    7.524    7.364    6.818    7.455    7.000
   63   7.153    7.400    7.545    7.000    7.545    7.389    6.842    7.471    7.000
   64   7.165    7.417    7.563    7.000    7.579    7.409    6.864    7.500    7.000
   65   7.200    7.440    7.600    7.040    7.591    7.450    6.905    7.526    7.045
   66   7.218    7.476    7.625    7.050    7.636    7.455    6.909    7.545    7.091
   67   7.245    7.500    7.640    7.080    7.647    7.500    6.955    7.591    7.095
   68   7.280    7.520    7.680    7.120    7.682    7.500    6.955    7.591    7.136
   69   7.306    7.550    7.708    7.125    7.714    7.545    7.000    7.636    7.143
   70   7.320    5.571    7.720    7.160    7.727    7.571    7.045    7.667    7.182
   71   7.360    7.600    7.760    7.200    7.773    7.591    7.048    7.682    7.200
   72   7.389    7.632    7.786    7.217    7.773    7.632    7.091    7.727    7.227
   73   7.400    7.652    7.800    7.250    7.818    7.636    7.105    7.750    7.273
   74   7.440    7.680    7.840    7.280    7.842    7.682    7.136    7.773    7.286
   75   7.473    7.720    7.870    7.320    7.864    7.714    7.182    7.813    7.318
   76   7.490    7.750    7.880    7.333    7.905    7.727    7.200    7.824    7.364
   77   7.520    7.765    7.920    7.360    7.909    7.773    7.227    7.864    7.375
   78   7.558    7.800    7.957    7.400    7.955    7.800    7.273    7.905    7.409
   79   7.578    7.833    7.960    7.437    8.000    7.818    7.309    7.917    7.455
   80   7.600    7.870    8.000    7.455    8.000    7.864    7.333    7.955    7.476
   81   7.640    7.900    8.040    7.480    8.045    7.905    7.364    8.000    7.500
   82   7.673    7.920    8.080    7.520    8.091    7.939    7.409    8.000    7.545
   83   7.695    7.960    8.091    7.560    8.095    7.955    7.438    8.048    7.591
   84   7.726    8.000    8.125    7.583    8.136    8.000    7.476    8.091    7.632
   85   7.760    8.040    8.160    7.600    8.182    8.045    7.524    8.136    7.667
   86   7.800    8.080    8.200    7.640    8.227    8.070    7.545    8.182    7.684
   87   7.840    8.120    8.240    7.680    8.250    8.105    7.591    8.227    7.737
   88   7.880    8.158    8.280    7.720    8.286    8.143    7.636    8.273    7.773
   89   7.920    8.200    8.320    7.783    8.333    8.190    7.682    8.318    7.818
   90   7.960    8.240    8.364    7.821    8.381    8.250    7.727    8.364    7.864
   91   8.000    8.300    8.417    7.875    8.429    8.300    7.786    8.412    7.950
   92   8.073    8.360    8.478    7.917    8.500    8.364    7.857    8.476    8.000
   93   8.120    8.417    8.520    7.960    8.545    8.409    7.909    8.545    8.045
   94   8.178    8.480    8.600    8.000    8.600    8.500    8.000    8.619    8.136
   95   8.242    8.560    8.667    8.080    8.682    8.563    8.048    8.682    8.190
   96   8.320    8.650    8.739    8.160    8.762    8.641    8.143    8.773    8.318
   97   8.440    8.750    8.826    8.240    8.833    8.762    8.273    8.864    8.428
   98   8.570    8.864    8.920    8.368    8.952    8.864    8.409    8.955    8.545
   99   8.791    9.000    9.000    8.604    9.000    9.000    8.636    9.000    8.809
                                                                                       


Note. "AmEng" = American English; "BrEng" = British English. The
2003 year marked a transition from a 25-item to a 22-item version
of LibQUAL+TM, and that year norms were reported for
both the longer and the new, shorter version of the protocol.

Table A.2 LibQUAL+TM Service Affect Scores (v = 9) for Percentile Ranks 1 to 99 for American English Data Across Selected Years Year %tile 2001 2003 2004 2005 1 2.667 2.889 2.444 2.556 2 3.295 3.667 3.444 3.444 3 3.778 4.125 3.889 3.889 4 4.111 4.444 4.250 4.222 5 4.422 4.667 4.556 4.556 6 4.556 4.889 4.667 4.667 7 4.778 5.000 4.889 4.889 8 4.889 5.111 5.000 5.000 9 5.000 5.222 5.111 5.000 10 5.111 5.333 5.200 5.200 11 5.222 5.444 5.250 5.250 12 5.333 5.556 5.333 5.333 13 5.422 5.667 5.444 5.444 14 5.444 5.778 5.556 5.556 15 5.556 5.780 5.625 5.667 16 5.667 5.889 5.667 5.667 17 5.671 6.000 5.778 5.778 18 5.778 6.000 5.857 5.875 19 5.889 6.111 5.889 5.889 20 5.889 6.125 6.000 6.000 21 6.000 6.222 6.000 6.000 22 6.000 6.250 6.000 6.111 23 6.111 6.333 6.111 6.125 24 6.111 6.333 6.143 6.222 25 6.201 6.444 6.222 6.222 26 6.222 6.444 6.222 6.333 27 6.311 6.556 6.333 6.333 28 6.333 6.556 6.333 6.444 29 6.333 6.625 6.429 6.444 30 6.444 6.667 6.444 6.500 31 6.444 6.667 6.500 6.556 32 6.533 6.778 6.556 6.556 33 6.556 6.778 6.556 6.667 34 6.556 6.778 6.625 6.667 35 6.667 6.889 6.667 6.667 36 6.667 6.889 6.667 6.750 37 6.667 6.889 6.667 6.778 38 6.778 7.000 6.778 6.778 39 6.778 7.000 6.778 6.875 40 6.778 7.000 6.778 6.889 41 6.872 7.000 6.875 6.889 42 6.889 7.111 6.889 7.000 43 6.889 7.111 6.889 7.000 44 6.889 7.125 7.000 7.000 45 6.978 7.222 7.000 7.000 46 7.000 7.222 7.000 7.111 47 7.000 7.222 7.000 7.111 48 7.000 7.286 7.111 7.111 49 7.067 7.333 7.111 7.200 50 7.111 7.333 7.111 7.222 51 7.111 7.375 7.143 7.222 52 7.111 7.444 7.222 7.250 53 7.200 7.444 7.222 7.333 54 7.222 7.444 7.222 7.333 55 7.222 7.500 7.333 7.333 56 7.222 7.556 7.333 7.429 57 7.311 7.556 7.333 7.444 58 7.333 7.556 7.375 7.444 59 7.333 7.667 7.444 7.500 60 7.333 7.667 7.444 7.556 61 7.444 7.667 7.444 7.556 62 7.444 7.714 7.500 7.556 63 7.444 7.778 7.556 7.625 64 7.486 7.778 7.556 7.667 65 7.556 7.778 7.600 7.667 66 7.556 7.857 7.667 7.667 67 7.556 7.889 7.667 7.750 68 7.644 7.889 7.667 7.778 69 7.667 7.889 7.750 7.778 70 7.667 8.000 7.778 7.857 71 7.667 8.000 7.778 7.889 72 7.778 8.000 7.778 7.889 73 7.778 8.000 7.875 7.889 74 7.778 8.111 7.889 8.000 75 7.840 8.111 7.889 8.000 76 7.889 8.111 8.000 8.000 77 7.889 8.143 8.000 8.000 78 7.889 8.222 8.000 8.111 79 8.000 8.222 8.000 8.111 80 8.000 8.250 8.111 8.125 81 8.000 8.333 8.111 8.222 82 8.000 8.333 8.125 8.222 83 8.111 8.429 8.222 8.333 84 8.111 8.444 8.222 8.333 85 8.111 8.444 8.333 8.375 86 8.222 8.556 8.333 8.444 87 8.222 8.556 8.375 8.444 88 8.333 8.625 8.444 8.556 89 8.333 8.667 8.500 8.556 90 8.444 8.667 8.556 8.667 91 8.444 8.778 8.600 8.667 92 8.556 8.778 8.667 8.778 93 8.556 8.889 8.750 8.778 94 8.667 8.889 8.778 8.889 95 8.778 9.000 8.889 8.889 96 8.778 9.000 8.889 9.000 97 8.778 9.000 9.000 9.000 98 9.000 9.000 9.000 9.000 99 9.000 9.000 9.000 9.000

Table A.3 LibQUAL+TM Personal Control ('01, '03), Information Access ('01, '03), and Information Control ('03 to '05) Scores for Percentile Ranks 1 to 99 Across Years for American English PersCo01 PersCo03 InfoAc01 InfoAc03 InfoCo03 InfoCo04 InfoCo05 %tile (v = 6) (v = 6) (v = 5) (v = 5) (v = 8) (v = 8) (v = 8) 1 2.833 3.167 2.800 3.000 3.125 3.279 3.000 2 3.652 4.000 3.400 3.750 3.800 3.875 3.750 3 4.000 4.333 3.800 4.000 4.250 4.333 4.143 4 4.275 4.667 4.200 4.400 4.500 4.625 4.500 5 4.500 4.833 4.400 4.600 4.750 4.858 4.667 6 4.667 5.000 4.564 4.800 4.875 5.000 4.875 7 4.833 5.167 4.600 5.000 5.000 5.125 5.000 8 5.000 5.167 4.800 5.000 5.125 5.250 5.125 9 5.000 5.333 4.888 5.200 5.250 5.375 5.250 10 5.167 5.500 5.000 5.250 5.375 5.429 5.375 11 5.333 5.500 5.000 5.400 5.500 5.500 5.429 12 5.333 5.667 5.200 5.400 5.571 5.625 5.500 13 5.500 5.667 5.200 5.600 5.625 5.714 5.625 14 5.500 5.833 5.274 5.600 5.750 5.750 5.714 15 5.667 5.833 5.400 5.750 5.750 5.875 5.750 16 5.667 6.000 5.400 5.800 5.875 5.875 5.875 17 5.833 6.000 5.474 5.800 5.875 6.000 5.875 18 5.833 6.000 5.600 6.000 6.000 6.000 6.000 19 5.962 6.167 5.600 6.000 6.000 6.125 6.000 20 6.000 6.167 5.600 6.000 6.125 6.125 6.125 21 6.000 6.200 5.688 6.000 6.125 6.200 6.125 22 6.143 6.333 5.800 6.200 6.250 6.250 6.250 23 6.167 6.333 5.800 6.200 6.250 6.250 6.250 24 6.167 6.333 5.800 6.200 6.286 6.375 6.250 25 6.198 6.500 5.874 6.250 6.375 6.375 6.375 26 6.333 6.500 5.964 6.400 6.375 6.375 6.375 27 6.333 6.500 6.000 6.400 6.500 6.500 6.429 28 6.333 6.500 6.000 6.400 6.500 6.500 6.500 29 6.500 6.667 6.000 6.400 6.500 6.500 6.500 30 6.500 6.667 6.088 6.500 6.571 6.625 6.571 31 6.500 6.667 6.164 6.600 6.625 6.625 6.625 32 6.500 6.667 6.200 6.600 6.625 6.625 6.625 33 6.667 6.800 6.200 6.600 6.625 6.714 6.667 34 6.667 6.833 6.200 6.600 6.750 6.750 6.750 35 6.667 6.833 6.252 6.750 6.750 6.750 6.750 36 6.667 6.833 6.288 6.750 6.750 6.750 6.750 37 6.780 6.833 6.364 6.800 6.833 6.857 6.857 38 6.833 7.000 6.400 6.800 6.875 6.857 6.875 39 6.833 7.000 6.400 6.800 6.875 6.857 6.875 40 6.833 7.000 6.400 6.800 6.875 6.875 6.875 41 6.833 7.000 6.438 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 42 6.842 7.000 6.478 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 43 7.000 7.000 6.526 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 44 7.000 7.167 6.564 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 45 7.000 7.167 6.600 7.000 7.000 7.000 7.000 46 7.000 7.167 6.600 7.000 7.125 7.125 7.125 47 7.000 7.167 6.600 7.000 7.125 7.125 7.125 48 7.152 7.167 6.600 7.000 7.125 7.125 7.125 49 7.167 7.200 6.652 7.200 7.125 7.125 7.143 50 7.167 7.333 6.688 7.200 7.200 7.143 7.250 51 7.167 7.333 6.752 7.200 7.250 7.250 7.250 52 7.167 7.333 6.764 7.200 7.250 7.250 7.250 53 7.167 7.333 6.800 7.250 7.250 7.250 7.250 54 7.318 7.333 6.800 7.250 7.286 7.250 7.286 55 7.333 7.333 6.800 7.250 7.375 7.333 7.375 56 7.333 7.500 6.800 7.400 7.375 7.375 7.375 57 7.333 7.500 6.852 7.400 7.375 7.375 7.375 58 7.333 7.500 6.888 7.400 7.375 7.375 7.400 59 7.333 7.500 6.952 7.400 7.429 7.375 7.500 60 7.485 7.500 6.964 7.400 7.500 7.500 7.500 61 7.500 7.500 7.000 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 62 7.500 7.667 7.000 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.500 63 7.500 7.667 7.000 7.500 7.500 7.500 7.571 64 7.500 7.667 7.000 7.600 7.625 7.500 7.625 65 7.502 7.667 7.052 7.600 7.625 7.625 7.625 66 7.664 7.667 7.088 7.600 7.625 7.625 7.625 67 7.667 7.667 7.162 7.600 7.625 7.625 7.625 68 7.667 7.800 7.190 7.667 7.714 7.625 7.714 69 7.667 7.833 7.200 7.750 7.750 7.714 7.750 70 7.667 7.833 7.200 7.750 7.750 7.750 7.750 71 7.667 7.833 7.200 7.800 7.750 7.750 7.750 72 7.829 7.833 7.200 7.800 7.750 7.750 7.800 73 7.833 7.833 7.274 7.800 7.857 7.750 7.875 74 7.833 8.000 7.288 7.800 7.857 7.857 7.875 75 7.833 8.000 7.364 7.800 7.857 7.857 7.875 76 7.833 8.000 7.400 8.000 7.875 7.875 7.875 77 7.962 8.000 7.400 8.000 7.875 7.875 8.000 78 8.000 8.000 7.400 8.000 8.000 8.000 8.000 79 8.000 8.000 7.400 8.000 8.000 8.000 8.000 80 8.000 8.000 7.474 8.000 8.000 8.000 8.000 81 8.000 8.167 7.526 8.000 8.000 8.000 8.125 82 8.000 8.167 7.600 8.000 8.125 8.000 8.125 83 8.167 8.167 7.600 8.200 8.125 8.125 8.125 84 8.167 8.167 7.600 8.200 8.125 8.125 8.167 85 8.167 8.333 7.600 8.200 8.167 8.125 8.250 86 8.167 8.333 7.688 8.200 8.250 8.250 8.250 87 8.310 8.333 7.800 8.250 8.250 8.250 8.286 88 8.333 8.333 7.800 8.333 8.286 8.250 8.375 89 8.333 8.500 7.800 8.400 8.375 8.375 8.375 90 8.333 8.500 7.874 8.400 8.375 8.375 8.500 91 8.500 8.500 8.000 8.500 8.500 8.429 8.500 92 8.500 8.667 8.000 8.600 8.500 8.500 8.625 93 8.500 8.667 8.000 8.600 8.625 8.571 8.625 94 8.667 8.667 8.164 8.667 8.625 8.625 8.750 95 8.667 8.833 8.200 8.800 8.750 8.750 8.750 96 8.667 8.833 8.288 8.800 8.857 8.750 8.875 97 8.833 9.000 8.400 9.000 8.875 8.875 9.000 98 9.000 9.000 8.600 9.000 9.000 9.000 9.000 99 9.000 9.000 8.800 9.000 9.000 9.000 9.000 Note. "PersCo" = Personal Control; "InfoAc" = Information Access; "InfoCo" = Information Control. In 2003, the 6 items on the Personal Control scale and the 5 items on the Information Access scale merged to form the new, 8-item Information Control scale, and that transitional year norms were reported for all three scales.

Table A.4 LibQUAL+TM Library as Place Scores (v = 5) for Percentile Ranks 1 to 99 for American English Data Across Selected Years Year %tile 2001 2003 2004 2005 1 1.400 2.400 2.000 1.000 2 1.800 3.000 2.000 2.200 3 2.200 3.600 2.600 3.000 4 2.596 4.000 3.200 3.333 5 2.800 4.200 3.500 3.600 6 3.000 4.400 3.800 3.800 7 3.200 4.600 4.000 4.000 8 3.200 4.750 4.200 4.200 9 3.400 4.800 4.250 4.400 10 3.600 5.000 4.400 4.600 11 3.800 5.000 4.600 4.667 12 3.800 5.200 4.750 4.800 13 4.000 5.200 4.800 5.000 14 4.200 5.400 5.000 5.000 15 4.200 5.400 5.000 5.000 16 4.400 5.500 5.000 5.200 17 4.400 5.600 5.200 5.200 18 4.600 5.600 5.200 5.400 19 4.600 5.750 5.200 5.400 20 4.800 5.800 5.400 5.400 21 4.800 5.800 5.400 5.600 22 4.832 6.000 5.400 5.600 23 5.000 6.000 5.600 5.600 24 5.000 6.000 5.600 5.800 25 5.000 6.000 5.600 5.800 26 5.200 6.200 5.750 5.800 27 5.200 6.200 5.800 6.000 28 5.200 6.200 5.800 6.000 29 5.274 6.250 5.800 6.000 30 5.400 6.400 6.000 6.000 31 5.400 6.400 6.000 6.200 32 5.400 6.400 6.000 6.200 33 5.600 6.500 6.000 6.200 34 5.600 6.600 6.000 6.200 35 5.600 6.600 6.200 6.400 36 5.636 6.600 6.200 6.400 37 5.800 6.600 6.200 6.400 38 5.800 6.750 6.250 6.400 39 5.800 6.800 6.400 6.500 40 5.890 6.800 6.400 6.600 41 6.000 6.800 6.400 6.600 42 6.000 6.800 6.400 6.600 43 6.000 7.000 6.500 6.600 44 6.000 7.000 6.600 6.750 45 6.070 7.000 6.600 6.800 46 6.200 7.000 6.600 6.800 47 6.200 7.000 6.600 6.800 48 6.200 7.000 6.667 6.800 49 6.200 7.000 6.800 7.000 50 6.256 7.200 6.800 7.000 51 6.400 7.200 6.800 7.000 52 6.400 7.200 6.800 7.000 53 6.400 7.200 7.000 7.000 54 6.400 7.200 7.000 7.000 55 6.582 7.333 7.000 7.200 56 6.600 7.400 7.000 7.200 57 6.600 7.400 7.000 7.200 58 6.600 7.400 7.000 7.200 59 6.600 7.400 7.000 7.200 60 6.800 7.500 7.200 7.250 61 6.800 7.500 7.200 7.400 62 6.800 7.600 7.200 7.400 63 6.800 7.600 7.200 7.400 64 6.802 7.600 7.250 7.400 65 7.000 7.600 7.333 7.400 66 7.000 7.667 7.400 7.572 67 7.000 7.750 7.400 7.600 68 7.000 7.800 7.400 7.600 69 7.000 7.800 7.400 7.600 70 7.061 7.800 7.500 7.600 71 7.200 7.800 7.600 7.750 72 7.200 8.000 7.600 7.800 73 7.200 8.000 7.600 7.800 74 7.200 8.000 7.600 7.800 75 7.400 8.000 7.750 7.800 76 7.400 8.000 7.800 8.000 77 7.400 8.000 7.800 8.000 78 7.400 8.000 7.800 8.000 79 7.400 8.200 7.800 8.000 80 7.600 8.200 8.000 8.000 81 7.600 8.200 8.000 8.000 82 7.600 8.200 8.000 8.200 83 7.610 8.250 8.000 8.200 84 7.800 8.400 8.000 8.200 85 7.800 8.400 8.000 8.250 86 7.800 8.400 8.200 8.400 87 7.982 8.500 8.200 8.400 88 8.000 8.600 8.250 8.400 89 8.000 8.600 8.400 8.600 90 8.000 8.600 8.400 8.600 91 8.180 8.750 8.400 8.600 92 8.200 8.800 8.600 8.750 93 8.200 8.800 8.600 8.800 94 8.400 9.000 8.750 8.800 95 8.400 9.000 8.800 9.000 96 8.600 9.000 9.000 9.000 97 8.800 9.000 9.000 9.000 98 9.000 9.000 9.000 9.000 99 9.000 9.000 9.000 9.000

Table A.5 LibQUAL+TM Total Scores for Undergraduate Students for Percentile Ranks 1 to 99 Across Two Language Versions and Five Years ('01 to '05) AmEng_01 AmEng_02 AmEng_03 AmEng_04 BrEng_04 AmEng_05 %tile (v = 25) (v = 25) (v = 25) (v = 22) (v = 22) (v = 22) 1 3.508 3.680 3.640 3.545 3.136 3.318 2 4.012 4.208 4.240 4.130 3.600 4.000 3 4.343 4.500 4.588 4.403 3.952 4.381 4 4.558 4.720 4.833 4.678 4.101 4.636 5 4.706 4.909 5.000 4.482 4.286 4.818 6 4.866 5.000 5.083 5.000 4.451 4.955 7 4.960 5.120 5.208 5.067 4.588 5.000 8 5.009 5.217 5.333 5.205 4.682 5.136 9 5.120 5.320 5.440 5.318 4.765 5.238 10 5.200 5.400 5.550 5.409 4.842 5.364 11 5.273 5.474 5.640 5.500 4.909 5.455 12 5.320 5.550 5.720 5.563 5.000 5.529 13 5.400 5.625 5.800 5.636 5.045 5.619 14 5.453 5.684 5.870 5.727 5.095 5.682 15 5.520 5.760 5.920 5.773 5.167 5.750 16 5.584 5.818 6.000 5.832 5.227 5.818 17 5.640 5.880 6.040 5.905 5.273 5.864 18 5.705 5.920 6.088 5.955 5.318 5.952 19 5.760 6.000 6.160 6.000 5.364 6.000 20 5.831 6.040 6.200 6.045 5.429 6.045 21 5.880 6.080 6.250 6.091 5.476 6.091 22 5.920 6.125 6.292 6.136 5.524 6.143 23 5.960 6.167 6.348 6.182 5.571 6.190 24 6.008 6.208 6.391 6.227 5.591 6.238 25 6.060 6.250 6.435 6.273 5.636 6.286 26 6.118 6.292 6.458 6.294 5.682 6.333 27 6.156 6.333 6.500 6.318 5.727 6.368 28 6.193 6.364 6.542 6.364 5.762 6.409 29 6.225 6.409 5.583 6.409 5.773 6.455 30 6.269 6.440 6.609 6.450 5.818 6.500 31 6.313 6.480 6.640 6.476 5.864 6.545 32 6.344 6.520 6.680 6.500 5.909 6.571 33 6.374 6.556 6.720 6.545 5.947 6.591 34 6.400 6.583 6.750 6.579 5.955 6.636 35 6.440 6.609 6.789 6.600 6.000 6.682 36 6.480 6.640 6.800 6.636 6.045 6.714 37 6.512 6.680 6.840 6.682 6.091 6.727 38 6.537 6.708 6.875 6.714 6.101 6.773 39 6.570 6.737 6.909 6.727 6.136 6.810 40 6.600 6.671 6.920 6.773 6.182 6.818 41 6.633 6.800 6.960 6.810 6.190 6.864 42 6.659 6.826 7.000 6.818 6.227 6.895 43 6.685 6.857 7.000 6.684 6.273 6.909 44 6.720 6.880 7.040 6.894 6.286 6.955 45 6.753 6.913 7.063 6.909 6.318 7.000 46 6.766 6.944 7.083 6.952 6.350 7.000 47 6.800 6.960 7.120 6.955 6.364 7.045 48 6.833 7.000 7.152 7.000 6.400 7.045 49 6.845 7.000 7.167 7.045 6.409 7.091 50 6.880 7.043 7.200 7.048 6.455 7.100 51 6.908 7.080 7.217 7.091 6.476 7.136 52 6.922 7.091 7.240 7.095 6.500 7.182 53 6.960 7.120 7.280 7.136 6.545 7.182 54 6.973 7.143 7.292 7.158 6.563 7.227 55 7.000 7.167 7.320 7.182 6.591 7.238 56 7.025 7.200 7.360 7.222 6.619 7.273 57 7.040 7.217 7.375 7.227 6.636 7.318 58 7.073 7.240 7.400 7.273 6.667 7.318 59 7.086 7.280 7.435 7.273 6.682 7.364 60 7.120 7.304 7.458 7.318 6.727 7.381 61 7.132 7.333 7.480 7.333 6.727 7.409 62 7.160 7.360 7.520 7.364 6.773 7.455 63 7.177 7.375 7.526 7.400 6.800 7.455 64 7.200 7.400 7.560 7.409 6.818 7.500 65 7.233 7.440 7.583 7.455 6.857 7.524 66 7.250 7.458 7.609 7.455 6.864 7.545 67 7.280 7.480 7.640 7.500 6.909 7.571 68 7.313 7.520 7.667 7.500 6.947 7.591 69 7.323 7.545 7.682 7.545 6.955 7.636 70 7.360 7.565 7.720 7.571 7.000 7.636 71 7.393 7.600 7.750 7.591 7.000 7.682 72 7.405 7.636 7.762 7.636 7.045 7.714 73 7.440 7.667 7.800 7.647 7.069 7.727 74 7.470 7.682 7.833 7.682 7.091 7.773 75 7.488 7.720 7.840 7.708 7.136 7.800 76 7.520 7.760 7.880 7.727 7.150 7.818 77 7.560 7.792 7.917 7.773 7.182 7.864 78 7.582 7.818 7.929 7.810 7.227 7.889 79 7.600 7.840 7.960 7.818 7.273 7.909 80 7.640 7.875 8.000 7.864 7.286 7.955 81 7.673 7.913 8.000 7.909 7.318 8.000 82 7.698 7.952 8.042 7.952 7.364 8.000 83 7.729 8.000 8.083 7.955 7.409 8.045 84 7.764 8.000 8.120 8.000 7.429 8.091 85 7.800 8.045 8.160 8.045 7.476 8.136 86 7.840 8.087 8.192 8.091 7.524 8.182 87 7.880 8.130 8.227 8.108 7.545 8.227 88 7.920 8.174 8.263 8.158 7.591 8.273 89 7.960 8.226 8.318 8.200 7.636 8.318 90 8.000 8.280 8.360 8.238 7.682 8.364 91 8.058 8.333 8.400 8.318 7.270 8.409 92 8.105 8.400 8.455 8.364 7.810 8.500 93 8.160 8.478 8.520 8.429 7.864 8.545 94 8.215 8.542 8.583 8.500 7.950 8.636 95 8.280 8.632 8.652 8.591 8.000 8.700 96 8.391 8.714 8.750 8.682 8.091 8.773 97 8.519 8.810 8.833 8.773 8.227 8.867 98 8.646 8.920 8.947 8.909 8.364 9.000 99 8.880 9.000 9.000 9.000 8.571 9.000

Table A.6 LibQUAL+TM Total Scores for Faculty for Percentile Ranks 1 to 99 Across Two Language Versions and Five Years ('01 to '05) AmEng_01 AmEng_02 AmEng_03 AmEng_04 BrEng_04 AmEng_05 %tile (v = 25) (v = 25) (v = 25) (v = 22) (v = 22) (v = 22) 1 3.280 3.676 3.544 3.235 3.000 3.046 2 3.675 4.175 4.217 3.892 3.590 3.810 3 4.000 4.522 4.542 4.318 3.978 4.273 4 4.240 4.750 4.800 4.547 4.275 4.591 5 4.400 4.920 5.000 4.773 4.455 4.789 6 4.540 5.046 5.160 4.909 4.591 4.955 7 4.664 5.190 5.292 5.045 4.682 5.079 8 4.777 5.295 5.412 5.136 4.864 5.200 9 4.908 5.400 5.520 5.273 4.955 5.318 10 4.995 5.480 5.637 5.364 5.091 5.409 11 5.073 5.579 5.720 5.451 5.182 5.500 12 5.154 5.667 5.800 5.541 5.228 5.591 13 5.233 5.727 5.880 5.636 5.273 5.667 14 5.302 5.800 5.958 5.710 5.364 5.727 15 5.361 5.875 6.000 5.773 5.426 5.816 16 5.455 5.920 6.080 5.833 5.500 5.895 17 5.520 6.000 6.125 5.905 5.545 5.955 18 5.560 6.040 6.190 5.955 5.591 6.000 19 5.623 6.080 6.240 6.000 5.636 6.059 20 5.680 6.125 6.280 6.053 5.682 6.136 21 5.720 6.169 6.333 6.118 5.727 6.182 22 5.760 6.217 6.400 6.158 5.762 6.227 23 5.818 6.250 6.440 6.200 5.818 6.273 24 5.872 6.292 6.480 6.263 5.864 6.318 25 5.898 6.333 6.524 6.286 5.909 6.364 26 5.921 6.379 6.565 6.333 5.955 6.409 27 5.960 6.417 6.600 6.364 6.000 6.455 28 6.000 6.450 6.640 6.409 6.045 6.500 29 6.040 6.480 6.680 6.444 6.055 6.545 30 6.080 6.520 6.720 6.455 6.091 6.591 31 6.120 6.560 6.760 6.500 6.133 6.619 32 6.160 6.600 6.800 6.529 6.143 6.647 33 6.200 6.625 6.833 6.571 6.182 6.682 34 6.218 6.647 6.870 6.600 6.211 6.727 35 6.250 6.680 6.880 6.636 6.230 6.773 36 6.280 6.720 6.920 6.682 6.273 6.810 37 6.320 6.750 6.958 6.714 6.318 6.850 38 6.360 6.789 7.000 6.727 6.353 6.864 39 6.400 6.810 7.000 6.773 6.364 6.909 40 6.434 6.840 7.040 6.800 6.409 6.950 41 6.452 6.875 7.080 6.818 6.421 6.955 42 6.480 6.892 7.087 6.864 6.455 7.000 43 6.520 6.920 7.120 6.889 6.476 7.000 44 6.560 6.952 7.160 6.909 6.500 7.048 45 6.600 6.960 7.182 6.944 6.545 7.091 46 6.632 7.000 7.208 6.955 6.571 7.111 47 6.655 7.000 7.240 7.000 6.591 7.136 48 6.680 7.043 7.273 7.000 6.600 7.182 49 6.717 7.080 7.286 7.045 6.636 7.182 50 6.745 7.091 7.320 7.061 6.647 7.227 51 6.760 7.120 7.333 7.091 6.682 7.238 52 6.800 7.160 7.360 7.116 6.700 7.273 53 6.840 7.174 7.400 7.136 6.727 7.318 54 6.859 7.200 7.417 7.182 6.754 7.333 55 6.880 7.240 7.440 7.190 6.773 7.364 56 6.909 7.250 7.476 7.227 6.800 7.400 57 6.930 7.280 7.480 7.250 6.818 7.409 58 6.960 7.316 7.520 7.273 6.818 7.455 59 6.991 7.333 7.542 7.318 6.864 7.455 60 7.000 7.360 7.560 7.333 6.889 7.500 61 7.040 7.391 7.600 7.368 6.909 7.524 62 7.068 7.409 7.625 7.409 6.950 7.545 63 7.086 7.440 7.640 7.444 6.955 7.571 64 7.120 7.458 7.667 7.455 7.000 7.591 65 7.154 7.480 7.684 7.500 7.000 7.632 66 7.165 7.520 7.720 7.500 7.045 7.636 67 7.200 7.542 7.750 7.545 7.060 7.682 68 7.211 7.565 7.760 7.559 7.091 7.691 69 7.251 7.600 7.800 7.591 7.136 7.727 70 7.280 7.619 7.833 7.619 7.143 7.762 71 7.320 7.640 7.840 7.642 7.182 7.773 72 7.352 7.680 7.880 7.682 7.190 7.818 73 7.379 7.700 7.909 7.714 7.227 7.833 74 7.400 7.720 7.920 7.727 7.273 7.864 75 7.440 7.760 7.958 7.762 7.286 7.900 76 7.473 7.778 8.000 7.778 7.318 7.909 77 7.496 7.800 8.000 7.818 7.364 7.952 78 7.520 7.840 8.040 7.857 7.409 7.955 79 7.555 7.870 8.080 7.866 7.429 8.000 80 7.576 7.895 8.087 7.909 7.455 8.045 81 7.600 7.920 8.120 7.952 7.500 8.053 82 7.640 7.958 8.160 8.000 7.500 8.092 83 7.673 8.000 8.200 8.000 7.549 8.136 84 7.680 8.000 8.217 8.050 7.591 8.182 85 7.720 8.045 8.250 8.091 7.633 8.211 86 7.760 8.083 8.292 8.136 7.682 8.250 87 7.800 8.125 8.320 8.158 7.727 8.286 88 7.833 8.160 8.360 8.190 7.772 8.318 89 7.868 8.208 8.400 8.250 7.818 8.364 90 7.913 8.250 8.440 8.286 7.864 8.409 91 7.960 8.313 8.480 8.333 7.909 8.455 92 8.000 8.360 8.542 8.382 7.955 8.500 93 8.078 8.409 8.591 8.450 8.000 8.556 94 8.120 8.480 8.640 8.500 8.050 8.619 95 8.200 8.550 8.708 8.591 8.136 8.667 96 8.275 8.625 8.761 8.682 8.273 8.773 97 8.360 8.708 8.840 8.769 8.364 8.857 98 8.520 8.810 8.920 8.864 8.461 8.916 99 8.695 8.951 9.000 9.000 8.689 9.000